Fact Friday

Hawksbill sea turtle

The shell, or carapace, of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate) is gorgeous, but beauty has its price. One of the biggest threats to this critically endangered species is poaching it for its shell. Despite being banned in 1977 by the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), some countries continue to create jewelry, combs, and other valuable objects from the shells.

Photo Credit: Ken Marks

Need Help?

Send us an email

Email

Conservation

Introduction

Coral reefs throughout the world are rapidly declining due to a combination of anthropogenic and natural threats. Some threats that coral reefs are experiencing include climate change, ocean acidification, overfishing, destructive fishing practices, coastal development, pollution, and extreme weather events (e.g., hurricanes, cyclones). Sometimes reefs are stressed by more than one threat, making it more difficult for them to recover. Most coral reefs could be lost by the end of the century if nothing is done to save them.

What can people do to ensure the survival of coral reefs (figure 22-1)? Through strong conservation measures and effective management of coral reef resources, people can mitigate some of the disruptions that coral reefs face from human activities. Individuals can also make a difference through their actions, such as making sustainable seafood choices, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and supporting conservation efforts that protect coral reefs.

22-1a 22-1b

Figure 22-1. Photographed are a) a deteriorating coral reef in Jamaica, and b) a thriving one in French Polynesia.
Photo Credit: a) Andrew Bruckner b) © Michele Westmorland/iLCP

In this unit, you are going to learn about the different actions used to manage and conserve coral reefs.

Marine Protected Areas

Often, the best way to conserve a coral reef is by establishing a Marine Protected Area (MPA; figure 22-2), sometimes called a Marine Managed Area (MMA). MPAs are a defined area of the ocean with set rules that state what is, and what is not, allowed in the area.

22-2

Figure 22-2. A map of the world’s MPAs that have been implemented and not yet implemented (areas that have been formally designated as MPAs but have not yet been fully implemented).

MPAs are an important conservation tool that, when enforced well, can be an effective means to achieve conservation of natural and cultural resources. They can be set up to achieve a variety of objectives, such as protecting an ecosystem or species, managing a fishery, restricting certain uses (such as oil drilling or commercial fishing), or providing recreational opportunities. MPAs are often the preferred way to protect coral reefs, as rules can be set in place that protect life on the reef while still allowing for sustainable human use.

Generally, MPAs fall into one of the following categories of human use:

  • No-entry: People are not allowed to enter the area without permission.
  • No-take: People are not allowed to take resources from the area (such as fish, oil, or cultural resources; figure 22-3).
  • No-impact: People are allowed to access the area, but all activities that can harm the site’s natural or cultural resources are prohibited. This can include wilderness areas, where people are allowed to enter, but are not allowed to use motorized vessels in the area.
  • Multiple-use: Allows most people to use and enjoy the MPA, but there are some restrictions on what activities are allowed, and what can be taken.
  • Zoned: The MPA is divided into areas where certain things are and are not allowed. Some areas may be zoned for multiple-use, while others may be no-take, and others may be fully protected as a no-entry area.


22-3a 22-3b

Figure 22-3. These signs from a) the Cook Islands and b) New Zealand indicate that these protected areas are no-take MPAs.

MPAs around the world vary greatly in size, level of protection, and how they are managed and enforced. Some MPAs are permanent, while others only exist conditionally, meaning that they must be renewed after a certain period of time. Throughout the year, MPAs or parts of the MPA can be protected for different lengths of time. Some are protected throughout the entire year, while others may be seasonally protected (e.g., breeding seasons, migratory species). How an MPA is managed is set forth in a management plan.

Coral Reef Management Plan

MPAs are overseen by marine managers who aim to preserve and conserve these areas. Marine managers are responsible for designing and implementing a management plan (figure 22-4) to protect the MPA.

22-4b 22-4c 22-4d

Figure 22-4. Examples of MPA management plans from Flower Garden Banks, U.S. (U.S. Dept. of Commerce NOAA, NMS 2012), Ascension Island, U.K. Territory (Ascension Island Gov’t 2021), Pitcairn Islands U.K. Territory (UK Gov’t 2021), and Papahānaumokuākea, U.S. (PMNM 2008).

Marine managers cannot apply a “one size fits all” management plan to all coral reefs. As you have learned in previous units, coral reefs are complex ecosystems (See Unit 1: Ecology). There are differences from reef to reef such as the types of abiotic and biotic factors (see Unit 8: Environmental Conditions), bathymetric features (see Unit 10: Reef Types), and zonation patterns (see Unit: 11 Reef Zonation). Each reef also has different natural and anthropogenic disturbances that impacts the ecosystem in a variety of ways. Due to these differences, each MPA requires its own management plan.

To take into consideration the many different anthropogenic and ecological interactions on the reef, marine managers use what is called ecosystem-based management, a multilayered management approach that balances the relationship between nature and humans. Many of the threats that coral reefs face are due to human activities. Millions of people around the world use or rely on coral reefs for a variety of ecosystem services, such as food, income, coastal protection, medicine, and tourism. Often the same people that are utilizing this resource are contributing to the decline of coral reefs. The best management plans involve feedback and buy-in from the people who utilize the area, so that they can become active participants in the sustainable use of this ecosystem.

Because a coral reef ecosystem has complex natural processes, it can be unpredictable. Coral reef managers must be able to adapt to these changes, and anthropogenic ones, as they happen. They use a specific type of ecosystem-based management called adaptive management, which is an experimental approach that involves constantly evaluating the processes and procedures in a management plan and changing them when new information emerges. Adaptive management is sometimes referred to as “learning by doing.” As managers learn from implementing the management plan, they can adapt it to create and maintain a sustainable ecosystem.

In this unit, you are going to learn the different actions that coral reef managers use to preserve and conserve coral reefs. These actions are often components in a management plan. Here are the following management plan components that you will learn about:

  1. Mitigating threats
  2. Stakeholder involvement
  3. Education & outreach
  4. Monitoring
  5. Enforcement
  6. Restoration

 

Next section

Page 1 of 8

Mitigating Threats

Every day you mitigate threats, and you probably don’t realize it. You password protect online accounts so that your identity isn’t stolen, or maybe you get a flu shot to prevent getting certain strains of the flu. Coral reefs also face many different threats. If possible, it is best to prevent these threats from happening. Managers can put measures in place to aid in prevention and reduction of threats to coral reefs. Below, learn about the different threats to coral reefs, and actions that can be taken to mitigate them.

Climate Change & Ocean Acidification

The biggest threat to coral reefs around the world is climate change. Rising ocean temperatures and more severe weather events, caused by climate change, are devastating coral reefs around the world. Higher than normal water temperatures stress out corals to the point where they lose their symbiotic algae, a process called coral bleaching (figure 22-5). Sometimes corals can regain their symbiotic algae and recover, but bleaching can lead to the death of a coral colony after a few days.

22-5a 22-5b

Figure 22-5. These Acropora corals are bleaching, revealing their white calcium carbonate skeletons.

When many coral reefs bleach around the world, it is called a mass bleaching event. These devasting events are becoming more frequent as ocean temperatures continue to rise, and corals become more stressed by other threats. Coral bleaching is now five times more likely to occur than only 40 years ago.

Ocean Acidification (OA) is also caused by too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, which dissolves in seawater becoming carbonic acid (H2CO2) and breaks into hydrogen ions (H+) that lowers the pH (higher acidity) of seawater. Ocean acidification reduces the amount of carbonate available for corals and other organisms (figure 22-6) to create their skeletons and shells. In other words, as the pH of the water decreases, it becomes more difficult for corals to build their skeletons. This will cause corals to grow more slowly and form weaker skeletons that are more susceptible to breakage. As OA worsens, corals may no longer be able to grow at all. This will have major impacts not only for the corals, but also for the entire ecosystem. A loss of corals means there will be a loss of habitat for the millions of species that rely on them.

22-6a 22-6b

Figure 22-6. OA will eventually make it harder for shelled organisms to create their shells, such as a) the Triton’s trumpet and b) the giant clam.
Photo Credit: a-b) Ken Marks

The only thing that can be done on a global scale to address climate change and ocean acidification is to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, by cutting emissions and sequestering carbon. Without reduction in carbon emissions, coral reefs as we know them today may no longer exist as functioning ecosystems by the end of the century (UN Climate report).

However, there are things that can be done locally to protect and preserve coral reefs. We can reduce the pressure reefs face from other threats, such as overfishing and poor water quality, which may improve their ability to survive and recover from a bleaching event. We can also identify and protect resilient reefs, that may be more likely to survive the coming changes to their environment.

Overfishing & Destructive Fishing Practices

Aside from climate change, overfishing (figure 22-7a) may be the greatest threat to coral reefs. Healthy reefs depend upon fish and other animals for a variety of functions. For example, one group of organisms called grazers (e.g., sea urchins, parrotfish, surgeonfish; figure 22-7b), keep the reef clear of algae, allowing new corals to settle and grow. The effects of removing organisms from a reef have far-reaching implications that go well beyond each organism’s population and effect the entire food web (see Unit 16: Food Web). In addition to overfishing, many harmful fishing practices cause severe damage to the reef itself.

22-7a 22-7b

Figure 22-7. a) Some areas in the South Pacific have overfished their sea cucumbers (as shown by the large number of dried sea cucumbers in this photo), which play an important role recycling nutrients on coral reefs. b) Parrotfish are important grazers helping to keep algae in check on the reef, but in some locations, they have been overfished.
Photo Credit: a) Amy Heemsoth; b) Stefan Andrews

Derelict fishing gear is lost, abandoned, or discarded fishing gear (e.g., pots, nets, lines) that is left in the ocean. It is also referred to as “ghost gear” (figure 22-8) because it continues to “fish,” trap, and entangle marine life and smother marine habitats despite being abandoned. In addition to killing fish, ghost gear can cause physical damage to corals. Derelict fishing gear can harm or kill other marine life that becomes entangled or trapped in the gear. This is especially dangerous for organisms that are endangered like sea turtles, sharks, and marine mammals. Removing derelict fishing gear from a reef and the surrounding habitats can have a compounding effect on the health of the reef over time.

22-8a 22-8b 22-8c

Figure 22-8. Ghost gear can entangle various animals that all live on or near coral reefs including this a) Hawaiian monk seal, b) crab, and c) sea turtle.

Various fishing rules and regulations can be implemented to reduce the threat of destructive and unsustainable fishing practices to aid in rebuilding overfished coral reefs. Here are some regulations that can be implemented:

  1. Area closures: Banning fishing activities in a defined area. Area closures may be temporary, seasonal, or permanent.
  2. Size limitation: A minimum and/or maximum size restriction of an organism that may be caught legally.
  3. No take zones: Designated areas where no extraction of any resource is allowed. Activities may include fishing, collecting, mining, or drilling.
  4. Fishing quota: A specified maximum number or amount of organisms that can be taken within a certain time period by an individual or company.
  5. Species bans: Identifies certain species (such as protected and endangered species) that are not allowed to be taken.
  6. Catch and release: Some recreational fisheries allow fish to be caught, but not taken. When certain fish species are captured, the fish must be unhooked and returned to the water unharmed.
  7. License or permit: A document from a regulating authority that provides the bearer the ability to fish according to the established terms. Fishing licenses vary depending on the individual (e.g., resident, age). There are also different fishing licenses depending on where the fishing is occurring (e.g., saltwater, freshwater). Even with the license, all other regulations remain in effect (e.g., size limits, species bans).
  8. Fishing gear restrictions: There are some types of gear that are especially harmful to coral reef fisheries. There are two types of fishing techniques that are extremely destructive to coral reefs – dynamite fishing and fish poisoning. Banning these types of fishing can aid in reducing destructive and unsustainable fishing.
Pollution & Coastal Development

Water pollution can be harmful to corals and other marine life in a coral reef ecosystem. Most water pollution stems from land-based sources. There are many different forms of land-based pollution that enter the ocean. Run-off carries excess nutrients, pathogens, toxins, and sediment from waterways to the ocean, reducing water quality (see Unit 8: Environmental Conditions) and harming coral reefs (figure 22-9). These pollutants come from farming, sewage, coastal development and road construction, deforestation, oil and chemical spills, industrial waste, and stormwater.

22-9a 22-9b

Figure 22-9. These rivers carry sediment and other forms of run-off into the ocean in a) New Caledonia and b) Western Australia, which both have nearby coral reef ecosystems.
Photo Credit: a) Andrew Bruckner

Coastal development often worsens these impacts. Hard structures like roads and roofs cause less water to be absorbed into the ground, resulting in more run-off to the ocean. Removal of trees and vegetation causes sedimentation, where more sediment runs off into the ocean from land, clouding the water column, and making it more difficult for corals to get the sunlight they need for their zooxanthellae (see Unit 4: Coral Feeding). Eutrophication, where excess nutrients (often from fertilizers on farmland or golf courses), can cause algal blooms in the usually clear waters of the coral reef (figure 22-10). This not only clouds the water column making it harder for corals to grow, but it also fuels the growth of macroalgae on the reef, making it more difficult for new corals to settle and grow (see Unit 9: Coral Growth) as corals and algae compete for limited space on the reef. Eutrophication can also fuel harmful algal blooms, which can cause massive die-offs of reef fish and other marine life.

22-10a 22-10b

Figure 22-10. a) Pictured is a small dinoflagellate, Kryptoperidinium foliaceum. When run-off increases, it can cause algal blooms. Though not toxic, these blooms deplete the water of oxygen, killing fish and other organisms. b) In the Philippines, this algal bloom has been caused by poor waste management.

Destruction of coastal habitats like mangrove forests, salt marshes, and seagrass beds, reduces the water quality further, as these natural habitats act as a filter for the water running into the ocean. Mangroves and seagrasses stabilize sediment, prevent erosion, and filter excess nutrients, heavy metals, and pollutants. They help to improve water quality before it reaches coral reefs, which need low nutrient waters to survive (see Unit 8: Environmental Conditions). They also sequester (store) carbon dioxide, which reduces the amount of greenhouse gases that enters our atmosphere. As mentioned previously, carbon dioxide contributes to climate change, which in turn causes ocean acidification.

One way that managers can mitigate run-off, sedimentation, and loss of coastal habitats is by working with other government and non-government organizations to implement a watershed management plan. These plans not only focus on managing the coral reefs, but all the land use upstream that could contribute to poor water quality on a reef.

Marine debris is any human-made object that is discarded or disposed of that enters the ocean (figure 22-11). All kinds of marine debris end up in the ocean, including trash such as plastic bottles, glass jars, plastic bags, and soda cans, but it can also include everyday items such as flip flops, fishing gear, and tires. Derelict fishing gear is also considered marine debris.

22-11a 22-11b

Figure 22-11. a) After marine debris enters the ocean, currents can carry the debris far distances, where it washes up on beaches like this one in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. b) Some marine debris sinks to the seafloor, like this can of motor oil, which landed on top of a coral. As time goes on, the coral polyps will die that are underneath the can.
Photo Credit: b) Annelise Hagan

Managers can organize different marine debris cleanup programs or work with other organizations to remove marine debris from the land and the ocean (figure 22-12a & b), but the best way to reduce marine debris is to stop trash from entering the ocean in the first place. Most marine debris enters the ocean from improperly disposed of trash, so limiting your use of single-use plastic (such as plastic bottles, bags, and straws), and disposing of trash and recyclables properly can help keep these items from ever entering the ocean (figure 22-12c).

22-12b 22-12b 22-12c

Figure 22-12. Cleanup programs remove marine debris from the land and ocean but limiting the use of single-use plastics is another solution.

Invasive Species

Invasive species are not native to a specific location, and when introduced they often have no natural predators and can cause a major threat to an ecosystem. In a coral reef ecosystem, invasives can spread rapidly and become the dominant species on the reef. When this occurs, their presence can reduce the number of native species and alter the entire ecosystem.

Lionfish are a good example of an invasive species that has done considerable damage to coral reefs in the Atlantic Ocean (figure 22-13a). On their native reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, lionfish are a healthy part of the coral reef ecosystem. On Atlantic reefs, they have few predators and can reduce native fish populations by throwing off the balance of the coral reef food web (see Unit 16: Food Webs). Removing these fish is one effective method used to mitigate the threat of lionfish (figure 22-13b). Various organizations have created fishing tournaments to remove as many of these fish from the reef as possible. Grocery stores are selling lionfish and local restaurants have also started serving it on their menus to help with removal and create awareness. Although removal helps reduce the lionfish’s population size, it is unlikely that all lionfish will ever be completely removed from the Atlantic Ocean.

22-13a 22-13b

Figure 22-13. Lionfish are invasive species in the Atlantic Ocean. Removal programs can help to mitigate the problem, but lionfish will never fully be removed from the Atlantic Ocean.
Photo Credit: a) Andrew Bruckner

Controlling Outbreaks

Crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci), also known as COTS, is a corallivore species in the Indian and Pacific Oceans that can have population outbreaks (figure 22-14). A corallivore is a predator that feeds on coral. They are an important coral reef functional group or a group of organisms that perform the same function in an ecosystem; however, booms in their population size can cause the loss of corals over large areas in a short period of time. Scientists have suggested that excess nutrients could trigger plankton production (Birkeland 1982; Fabricius et al. 2010), which COTS larvae feed on. More food for COTS larvae means that more may survive to adulthood. The loss of COTS predators, like the Triton’s trumpet (Charonia tritonis; Figure 22-15a) and titan triggerfish (Balistoides viridescens), may worsen the issue by reducing the number of predators that could help control the COTS population. Triton trumpet shells are commonly overharvested for artisanal trade and titan triggerfish are overfished on some reefs.

22-14a 22-14b

Figure 22-14. During this COTS outbreak, numerous starfish are seen feeding on an individual coral.
Photo Credit: a) Ken Marks; b) Annelise Hagan

Measures can be put in place to reduce the likelihood of a COTS outbreak, by reducing land-based pollution and implementing fisheries regulations (see Mitigating Threats). Once an outbreak occurs though, the only way to address it is by carefully removing these animals from the reef (figure 22-15). For more information, see Managing a COTS Outbreak.

22-15a 22-15b

Figure 22-15. Triton trumpets are both a food source for people and their beautiful shells are sold in the seashell market. By implementing fishing regulations for COTS predators, like the a) Triton trumpet, and b) removing COTS from the reef, these actions can aid in mitigating these outbreaks.
Photo Credit: a & b) Ken Marks

Physical Damage

Coral reefs are used for different recreational activities including diving, snorkeling, and boating. These activities can cause physical damage to coral reefs. There are regulations that can be put into place to help reduce these pressures.

Snorkelers and scuba divers can cause damage to coral reefs by standing, walking, touching, dragging their gear over them, and kicking corals with their fins (figure 22-16). They can also kick up sediment that covers corals reducing the amount of sunlight their zooxanthellae need to photosynthesize (see Unit 4: Coral Feeding). One way to reduce this threat is to properly educate people before entering the water so they know how to enjoy snorkeling and diving on the reef without damaging it. Another way to regulate this threat is to only allow recreational scuba diving and snorkeling in certain areas, or to regulate the number of people allowed to conduct these activities in a specific area. This can be done by providing a certain number of licenses to operators, a person or company that runs a business related to these activities, such as a dive shop.

22-16

Figure 22-16. Scuba divers who stand and sit on corals and the sea floor, kick up sediment, which can all cause damage or even loss of these corals.

Boat anchors can physically damage corals by breaking them apart or displacing them (figure 22-17a). The anchor chain can scrape the live tissue off the coral and/or become entangled, breaking the coral into pieces. Anchors can also harm other sessile or slow-moving reef organisms such as sponges and sea cucumbers. Mooring balls can be used to reduce or eliminate boats from anchoring (figure 22-17b & c). Mooring balls are round buoys that float on the surface of the water and are attached to a heavy permanent anchor on the seafloor. Instead of anchoring a boat to the seafloor, a line can be attached from the boat to the mooring ball to hold it in place.

22-17a 22-17b 22-17c

Figure 22-17. b & c) Mooring balls prevent boats from anchoring which can cause a) damage to coral reefs.
Photo Credit: a) Ken Marks

 

Stakeholder Involvement

Before creating a management plan, it is important to understand stakeholders of the coral reef ecosystem. Socio-economic monitoring (see Monitoring) can aid managers in figuring out the different coral reef stakeholders, or various individuals, groups, organizations, and communities who use the coral reef in a variety of different ways.

Below is a list of potential coral reef stakeholders organized by the activity that they conduct and how they can potentially impact the reef. Note that not all stakeholders are necessarily able to utilize the reef in a managed area.

Coral Reef-related Activity

Stakeholder(s)

Potential impact to reef

Fishing
  • Fishers
    •  Commercial
    • Subsistence
    • Artisanal
    • Recreational
    • Aquarium trade
    • Aquaculture
    • Coral Mining
  • Fishing industry groups
  • Fisheries associations
Overfishing, habitat destruction, and water quality
Gas and oil mining
  • Oil & gas operators
  • Employees
Habitat destruction & oil spills
Industrial land use in the watershed
  • Land miners
  • Farmers
  • Ranchers
  • Loggers
  • Aquaculturists
  • Large landowners
Sedimentation, land-based pollution, & habitat destruction
Coastal development
  • Developers
  • Homeowners
  • Port and marina owners
Habitat destruction, sedimentation, land-based pollution
Tourism
  • Tourists
  • Local residents
  • Hotels
  • Local business owners
  • Scuba diving and snorkeling operators
  • Ecotourism operators
  • Water sports operators
  • Fishing charters
Habitat destruction (e.g., physical damage from snorkelers and scuba divers) and overfishing
Boating and shipping
  • Commercial shipping companies
  • Yacht, boat, & sailboat clubs
  • Marinas
  • Rental companies
  • Port authority
Boat groundings, anchor damage, pollution, habitat destruction (e.g., dredging)
Government
  • Politicians
  • Enforcement officers
  • Local leaders
  • Traditional leaders
Politicians represent all stakeholders. Good politicians will make informed decisions that minimize negative impacts to the reefs and its stakeholders.
Indigenous communities
  • Native community members
They have a cultural and spiritual relationship with coral reefs and are often reliant on them for their livelihood. *They could be listed in different categories (e.g., fishing, boating).
Conservationists
  • Non-government Organizations (NGOs)
  • Residents
  • Tourists
The objective is to protect coral reefs, which can conflict with other stakeholders’ activities.
Coral Reef Managers
  • Reef managers
  • Scientists
  • Universities
  • NGOs
  • Government agencies
Coral reef managers have a difficult job of balancing the sustainable use of coral reefs by its stakeholders while conserving them.

As you can see, there are many different people that can use and impact coral reefs (figure 22-18). Some stakeholders directly rely on coral reefs for resources such as food (e.g., subsistence fishers); others may not utilize the resource directly, but they do impact the reef (e.g., oil spills from mining). Looking at the chart above, you may also observe that both land-based and oceanic activities affect coral reefs. Therefore, managers often take a “ridge to reef” management approach that takes into consideration all activities that impact coral reefs whether at sea or on land.

Figure 22-18. Many different stakeholders utilize a coral reef, including a) subsistence fishers, b) reef conservationists, and c) tourists.

Coral reef managers have a difficult job of balancing the sustainable use of coral reefs by its stakeholders while also conserving them. It is important to involve everyone in decisions related to the management of coral reefs because these decisions can positively or negatively impact stakeholders (figure 22-19). Although it is difficult to please all stakeholders, by being inclusive, managers will allow stakeholders to voice their concerns and opinions and incorporate them into their management plan. This participation will hopefully help stakeholders to understand and legitimize the potential rules and regulations or changes that may later be implemented. Hopefully, there is an element of trust established that will make it a positive and effective partnership.

Figure 22-19. Stakeholders gather at community meetings to discuss changes to the management plan.

It is essential for managers to not only identify stakeholders, how they use the reef, and the potential impact they can cause to coral reefs. It is also important to understand the demographics (e.g., population size, gender, level of education, household income), how stakeholders interact with one another, and the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about coral reefs and coral reef management. Often, the socio-economic monitoring plan reveals that stakeholders have very little knowledge about how their actions could impact coral reefs.

 

Education & Outreach

Many of the same people that use coral reefs are also (often unwittingly) contributing to their decline. For coral reefs to flourish, stakeholders should understand how their actions impact the coral reef, and why protecting the reef is important. People are more likely to obey the rules when they understand it is in their best interest to do so.

Education and outreach programs are designed to inform the public. There are many different types of effective education and outreach practices and programs that are used. They can include holding events, publishing materials, conducting educational programs for students or adults, creating exhibits, films, advertising, or generating news stories (figure 22-20). Providing basic knowledge and information is important, but also providing an opportunity for the public to ask questions and have their concerns addressed is also essential.

Figure 22-20. There are many forms of education and outreach programs. a) They can include directly educating participants or b) they could involve creating educational films about important management topics.
Photo Credit: Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation

Education and outreach programs can also effectively aid in communicating the management plan, so that stakeholders fully understand the existing or proposed rules and regulations and can also allow for people to actively participate in the development of the management plan (figure 22-21). The best outreach programs not only educate the public but inspire participants to become active stewards of these fragile marine ecosystems.

22-21a 22-21b

Figure 22-21. a) The public is invited to watch a sea turtle release, which is one way to raise awareness and engage stakeholders to protect sea turtles. b) A community in the Solomon Islands gathers to learn about coral reefs and discuss the various actions that threaten their reefs.
Photo Credit: b) Amy Heemsoth

Often, outreach and education programs will contain ways for people to actively participate in the preservation and conservation of an ecosystem. Citizen science programs are one example of active participation (figure 22-22). The programs allow for members of the general public to conduct scientific research that aids in collecting additional data for a scientific organization. At the same time, this increases the individual’s knowledge and stewardship.

22-22a 22-22b 22-22c

Figure 22-22. a) A volunteer returns a horseshoe crab after tagging it and collecting other vital signs and data about it. b) Lionfish derbys aid in removing invasive lionfish, but also allows managers to collect other information about them such as weight, length, and diet. c) Citizens collect water quality samples to test their local watershed.

When creating education programs managers must also consider the importance of learning and teaching traditional knowledge. Indigenous Knowledge (IK) or Traditional knowledge (TK) is the knowledge passed along from generation to generation by word of mouth, legends, songs, stories, and/or cultural rituals (figure 22-23). It provides information about a communities’ activities such as farming, fishing, traditional medicine, education, and customs and culture. Teaching about TK helps people to learn about and respect other cultures. It also provides insight into living sustainably with the environment.

22-23a 22-23b

Figure 22-23. As part of the management plan, it is important to understand TK, such as the use of traditional fishing techniques.
Photo Credit: a) Amy Heemsoth; b) Serge Andrefouet

Monitoring

Day-to-day people monitor all sorts of things – the performance of their favorite sports teams, fluctuations in the stock market, tracking their grades, and how social media affects business. Monitoring is a systematic collection of data, and an important component of managing coral reefs.

For managers, the goal of coral reef monitoring is to be able to make informed and effective management decisions based on the data that they collect. Reef managers will come up with a monitoring plan to that uses standardized tools and methods to assess how well the coral reef is being protected. When monitoring coral reefs, data is collected not only about the ecology of the coral reef but also the people who use it. Therefore, the monitoring plan may contain both ecological and socio-economic indicators.

Ecological Monitoring

Ecological monitoring uses various standardized protocols and methodology to gather data and information to measure the condition of an environment.

Long-term monitoring looks for changes over time, and to do this, monitoring takes place over regular intervals (e.g., once a month or year) over extended periods of time (e.g., years, decades; figure 22-24). The same protocols and methods are used each time the coral reef is monitored, so that the data can be compared over time, and other scientists can replicate the same process. Long-term monitoring also acts as an “early warning system” alerting managers to any harmful changes to the coral reef.


22-24a 22-24b 22-24c

Figure 22-24. Management of coral reefs requires science being conducted above and below the ocean. a) Scientists collect coral samples to study in the lab. b) A scientist maps the coral reef and the surrounding habitats. c) Data is recorded and later analyzed to determine the status of the reef and whether it has changed over time.
Photo Credit: a) Erwan Amice; b) Liz Smith; c) © Keith Ellenbogen/iLCP

Post-disturbance monitoring is a type of monitoring used by scientists to immediately assess any damage caused to the coral reef after a disturbance, such as a coral bleaching event, ship grounding, hurricane, or oil spill (figure 22-25). It helps them form and implement a plan to mitigate or control the disturbance and is added to the long-term monitoring data to monitor the recovery process.


22-25a 22-25b

Figure 22-25. a) Staff from a local non-profit cleans local wildlife after an oil spill. b) Scientists assess the damage after a ship has grounded on a coral reef. They must first remove the gasoline and human waste from the ship.

Socio-Economic Monitoring

Socio-economic monitoring uses various standardized protocols and methods to gather data and information on how humans are using natural resources. Managers use this information to see how human activities impact coral reefs, but also how existing rules and regulations effect the local community.

Although these monitoring protocols and methods remain the same, the managers may determine after analyzing the data, that additional actions may be necessary to help protect the coral reef.

Enforcement

There are laws and regulations that you must follow in your everyday life that help protect individuals and communities. Imagine that you run a red light at a traffic signal. You are breaking the law and if caught, a law enforcement officer can give you a ticket and fine. Nature also needs protection. Laws and regulations are implemented to preserve coral reefs. Enforcement ensures that people adhere to existing laws and regulations.   

You may be wondering, who has jurisdiction over the ocean when there are no fences or boundaries to contain it? On land, we have borders that are maintained by entities such as countries, states, counties/parishes, cities, tribal lands, and communities. You know that you are leaving one country and entering another because there are signs, fences, and sometimes even immigration checkpoints. In the ocean, boundaries are not as easily defined. To address this, in 1982, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea established a maritime boundary called the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). This international law states that each country has jurisdiction over 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) from its coastline (figure 22-26). Countries that have overlapping EEZs (less than 400 nautical miles between them), must work together to agree on the boundary.

22-25

Figure 22-26. Cross-section illustrating the EEZ maritime boundary.

The EEZ allows individual countries to explore, use, conserve, and manage this area as they see fit (figure 22-27). People rely on these waters for their livelihoods in that they provide jobs and income from activities such as fishing, mining, and tourism. Other people may enjoy recreational activities such as snorkeling, scuba diving, swimming, and boating. Goods are imported and exported through shipping channels within the EEZ and oil, natural gas, and mineral deposits may be extracted. With so much diverse activity taking place in the EEZ, countries must try to manage these areas protecting the environment and the people using it. 

22-27a 22-27b

Figure 22-27. a) Map of Caribbean EEZ territories; b) Map of Pacific EEZ territories

Legislators create laws and regulations over areas within their EEZ that citizens and non-citizens must abide by. Throughout the tropics, countries with coral reefs found within or near their EEZ need to establish special regulations to manage this ecosystem.  Each coral reef area has various types of activities taking place and requires different types of conservation actions; thus, the laws and regulations vary greatly from reef to reef.

Putting laws and regulations into place isn’t enough though. Enforcement is a crucial part of a management plan and includes policing, surveillance, and prosecution.

Policing

Similar to how police enforce the laws and regulations that protect us, conservation enforcement officers enforce the laws and regulations that protect wildlife and the environment (figure 22-28). Many titles fall into this category, including environmental officer, game warden, game ranger, wildlife trooper, fisheries officer, park ranger, and wilderness officer, to name a few. Conservation enforcement officers often have the same authority as police officers, meaning that they have the ability to fine and arrest people who violate the law. They have a variety of responsibilities that include enforcing a wide range of laws that are related to conservation, outdoor activities, and public safety.

22-28a 22-28b

Figure 22-28. a) Conservation officers patrol the ocean during spiny lobster season. b) U.S. Fish and Wildlife officers ensure that this fisher has a fishing license.

There are two different types of enforcement that can be used to stop or deter people from conducting harmful activities: soft enforcement and hard enforcement. Effective enforcement uses both methods simultaneously.

Soft enforcement is a type of enforcement that creates awareness about the rules encouraging stakeholders to voluntarily comply with them. For example, if someone is violating the law, an officer may determine that the best action is to give the person a verbal or written warning. The violator understands the wrongdoing but doesn’t have a long-term punishment. This maintains a positive relationship between the public and conservation enforcement officers.

Soft enforcement requires a great deal of education and outreach in order to be effective (see Education & Outreach). When the stakeholders support the rules, they are more likely to change their own behaviors and aid enforcers by reporting violators.

Although voluntary compliance is preferred, hard enforcement is often necessary. Hard enforcement uses legal means to enforce laws and regulations. Conservation enforcement officers participate in a range of activities when using hard enforcement, including patrolling, surveillance, and arresting violators; collecting, handling, and documenting evidence; and working with the legal system to prosecute violators (figure 22-29).

22-29a 22-29b

Figure 22-29. With hard enforcement, officers gather evidence against violators. a) Officers charge these suspects with illegal fishing and collect and document evidence. b) Photographs are one form of evidence that can be used.

Surveillance

All criminal cases require evidence. Surveillance is one method conservation enforcement officers use to obtain evidence and deter people from breaking the law. Surveillance monitors the behavior and activities of potential violators to prevent or detect a crime. These investigations take place when officers make visual observations (e.g., patrols) using an assortment of technologies (e.g., satellite, radar, sonar, cameras).

Patrolling is a type of surveillance that requires conservation enforcement officers to be physically present to deter and/or detect violators (figure 22-30). Coral reef conservation enforcement officers patrol the sea, the coast, and the land. The marine environment, in particular, is not easy to patrol because weather and sea conditions can be unpredictable and dangerous. Patrolling requires motorized vessels and experienced staff. To further complicate matters, the area being patrolled is usually quite large, which makes it difficult to cover all locations at the same time. Communities can aid in surveillance by collecting information about violators and reporting them to the authorities in instances where an officer may not be present.


22-30a22-30b

Figure 22-30. Conservation enforcement officers conduct water-based patrolling. Different types of vessels may be required to access varying marine environments such a) marshlands that require airboats and b) faster motorized vessels for ocean patrolling.

Land-based patrolling is also important and usually more easily conducted than water-based patrolling (figure 22-31b). The shoreline and land can be monitored by foot patrols, as well as having officers stationed at boat docks and launching and landing ramps. Officers may sometimes board vessels to conduct spot inspections on fishing and safety equipment. For example, they may check to make sure that there are enough life vests on board to accommodate each passenger, or make sure that they are not using illegal fishing gear such as fish poisoning. Officers may also inspect vessels returning from sea to make sure that they are following all fishing rules and regulations (figure 22-31a). They may conduct an inspection to see if fishers have the correct fishing permit or license, have returned with legally caught fish, and fished within the specified regulations (e.g., number of fish caught, size of fish).


22-31a 22-31b

Figure 22-31. a) A conservation enforcement officer checks the length of a recreationally caught lobster to make sure that it is within the acceptable size limits. b) On land, conservation enforcement officers use specially certified K9s to detect wildlife and track criminals.

As technology progresses, surveillance tools also advance. There are many different types of surveillance technology used to catch lawbreakers. They include radar, sonar, manned and unmanned drones, listening devices, and vessel monitoring systems (VMS). These technologies can help officers detect violators while also reducing the cost of patrolling, saving time, increasing efficiency, and reducing the risk to themselves. It is especially useful in remote areas that are difficult to patrol. 

Prosecution

Those who violate laws and regulations usually face legal consequences, and the severity of the infraction will depend on the type of violation. Minor infractions usually incur fines. For example, in Puerto Rico, any child under the age of 12 who is in a vessel while moving must wear a life jacket or they will be fined $50. These cases typically don’t require prosecution, or legal proceedings of a criminal charge.

Major infractions such as using illegal fishing methods may require more strict prosecution (figure 22-32). Once a criminal case has been fully investigated, the evidence is provided from the conservation enforcement officer to the appropriate authorities to be processed through the legal system.

22-32a 22-32b

Figure 22-32. a) A commercial vessel was caught with 40 undersized stone crab claws. The claws were seized for evidence and the violator was provided with a notice to appear in court. b) Officers seized these illegally harvested sea turtle eggs. The information and photos obtained were later used as evidence against the perpetrator in a legal case.

Prosecution is an important step in the enforcement process. It is important for violators to be brought to justice. Without prosecution, laws and regulations have no bearing and these protected areas would be negatively impacted by these illegal human activities. Prosecuting criminals penalizes those who participate in criminal activity and acts as a deterrent for those who might commit a crime. It also provides justice for people who rely on coral reefs for their livelihood. They too can be affected by these harmful activities. Lastly, it provides justice to the silent victim – coral reefs.  

Restoration

When other conservation measures fail, and a coral reef has been damaged or destroyed, restoration efforts attempt to return an ecosystem to its original condition. Restoration can aid in speeding up the recovery process, but it is typically not the sole solution to the problem and may never fully return the ecosystem to its original state.

Coral reef restoration typically involves restoring coral populations. Restoring these populations not only benefits the corals, but the other organisms living there. Corals play an extremely important functional role in the coral reef community because they are the ‘habitat builders.’ They provide the physical structure for millions of species that inhabit it, harboring 25% of all marine life. Thriving corals can increase the biodiversity of the entire reef community. Their physical structure also provides another function, helping to slow down waves which may otherwise erode the shoreline. These functions provided by corals are essential to the overall condition of a coral reef. Therefore, restoration can be an extremely important component of the management plan. Below are some common restoration techniques that are used:

Coral Aquaculture

Coral gardening or coral farming is a restoration method that uses fragmentation, a type of asexual reproduction (see Unit 5: Coral Reproduction), to raise corals (figure 22-33). During this process, a fragment is broken from a parent coral. The fragments are grown in what is called a ‘coral nursery.’ Nurseries can be constructed in the ocean or in a laboratory. Once the corals reach a certain size, a site that has experienced degradation and/or some sort of disturbance, is chosen to outplant the corals. These locations are examined to determine if the environment is suitable for coral growth. If the disturbance still exists, chances are that these corals will also not survive. After finding a suitable location, the area is cleared so that corals can be secured to the seafloor. Once corals are planted, they are continuously monitored. Monitoring the outplanted corals can be incorporated into the monitoring plan or a separate plan may be developed. This technique has recently been very successful with raising fast-growing corals like Acropora species. Newer techniques for slower growing corals use micro-fragmentation, which breaks the coral into tiny pieces (1-5 polyps each) to spur faster coral growth.

22-33a 22-33b

Figure 22-33. a) Corals being farmed in the ocean. b) Once the farmed corals reach a certain size, they are transplanted to the coral reef.

Artificial Coral Reefs

Some restoration efforts include creating artificial coral reefs, a manmade structure that uses suitable materials to promote the growth of corals and other organisms that need a hard substrate to grow, as well as act as a complex structure to attract reef fish. Historically, decommissioned ships, subway cars, military tanks, tires, aircraft, and aircraft carriers have all been purposefully sunk to create artificial coral reefs. These can erode and release harmful chemicals into the water, so artificial coral reefs have evolved into using structures that do not harm the environment. Today, artificial structures are made from different materials and come in all shapes and sizes. Concrete is a popular material that is used to create artificial reef structures, which are often shaped into reef balls (figure 22-34). Like coral gardening, these structures are strategically placed in areas that require restoration. If colonized, artificial reefs can aid in increasing the biodiversity of an area.

22-34a 22-34b

Figure 22-34. Reef balls are used to create a substrate for corals and other organisms to grow on. They also provide a safe hiding place for fish and other reef creatures.

Artificial reefs can also be used to create dive and snorkel sites to alleviate pressure on natural reefs. In some places, artists create unique underwater dive and snorkel experiences using cement sculptures as artificial reefs (figure 22-35). 

22-35a 22-35b

Figure 22-35. a) Christ of the Abyss statue in John Pennekamp State Park, Florida, U.S. b) Statue in Musea Subacuático de Arte, Isla Mujeres, Mexico.

Repair Coral Damage

After a disturbance such as a major storm, ship grounding, or anchor damage, it may be necessary to repair damage to the reef (figure 22-36). The coral reef will first be assessed as a part of a post-disturbance monitoring plan. Then marine debris can be removed. Corals that have been overturned can be set upright and reattached to the seafloor and sediment can be removed from buried colonies. Coral fragments can be collected and placed in coral nurseries. Given enough time, the reef may be able to regrow and recover.

22-36a 22-36b

Figure 22-36. SCUBA divers picking up broken coral fragments to replant them after a hurricane.

Each of the above-mentioned restoration actions has its own challenges and limitations, and managers must take these into consideration beforehand. One restoration effort may work for one area, but not another. Generally, these restoration actions are also costly. Managers have financial restraints, and they must decide on the best actions that will benefit the coral reefs and the people utilizing it.

In this unit, you have learned many of the actions that aid in conserving coral reefs, but this is not an all-inclusive list. The more we understand about coral reefs and how people utilize them, the better managers will be able to conserve this vital ecosystem.  

Attributions & Citations

ATTRIBUTIONS

Figure 22-2.
By Kaiwahine22 [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], 1 May 2020 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GlobalMPAs_logo_2020.jpg

Figure 22-3.
a) By Patrick Nunn [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], 15 August 2003 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Raui_(marine_protected_area)_sign,_Rarotonga_Island,_Cook_Islands.jpg.
b) By Krzysztof Golik [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], 17 March 2019 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_board_Te_Whanganui-A-Hei.jpg.

Figure 22-5.
a) By Vardhan Patankar [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], 12 May 2016 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bleached_coral,_Acoropora_sp.jpg.
b) By The Ocean Agency, XL Catlin Seaview Survey, Richard Vevers [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)], 24 January 2016 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/TiPnGp.

Figure 22-8.
a) By National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 21 October 2014 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/Tdq6CW.
b) By National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Program [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)], 6 November 2005 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/cEA5UQ.
c) By Mstelfox [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], 29 July 2014 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mart_new.jpg.

Figure 22-9.
b) By Sentinel Hub [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)], 4 June 2021 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2m3BXC2.

Figure 22-10.
a) By FWC Fish and Wildlife Research Institute [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 24 April 2013 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/edPm7n.
b) By Rom Dulo for the Philippine News Agency [Public domain CC0 (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/)], 25 June 2018 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boracay_algal_bloom_April_2018.jpg.

Figure 22-11.
a) By Susan White, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)], 14 September 2009 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/dj3Fqs.

Figure 22-12.
a) By Hawaii Department of Lands and Natural Resources [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 16 June 2015 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/Sw16Vm.
b) By National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 20 June 2012 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/TJPchm.
c) By David Slater/NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program Marine Debris Team [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 20 April 2016 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/Ga3kmk.

Figure 22-13.
b) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/)], 11 June 2011 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/cPdyHN.

Figure 22-16.
By Jjharvey8 [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], 26 May 2012 via Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Divers_coming_into_contact_with_coral.jpg.

Figure 22-17.
b) By W.carter, [Public domain CC0 (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/)], 5 May 2020 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mooring_buoys_in_Govik.jpg.
c) By Patrizia08 [Public domain CC0 (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/)], 12 March 2014 via Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/images/id-285324/.

Figure 22-18.
b) By Natasha Mulhall [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 6 December 2016 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/PRZGw3.
c) By Kris Krug [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 24 March 2011 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/9ttQ6M.

Figure 22-19.
a) By Filip Milovac [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 20 May 2015 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/uwABry.
b) By Bureau of Land Management [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en)], 24 November 2013 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Secretary_Salazar_Anacortes_03_(6926313923).jpg.

Figure 22-21.
a) By Rebekah Nelson Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/)], 28 June 2017 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/UXiku5.

Figure 22-22.
a) By Florida Sea Grant [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 31 March 2017 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/Siitgb.
b) By Bekah Nelson, Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 18 May 2019 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/Sb5jiT.
c) By WorldFish [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 26 October 2017 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/FdkoeA.

Figure 22-25.
a) By International Bird Rescue Research Center [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], 4 May 2010 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pelican_wash_from_oil_spill_Louisiana_13_Dawn_IBRRC_2010.05.04_B6X2141.jpg.
b) By U.S. Pacific Fleet [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 27 January 2013 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/dRjmMj. This photo was color corrected.

Figure 22-26.
By GRID-Arendal [CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/)], 3 February 2010 via Flickr. www.grida.no/resources/7923

Figure 22-27.
a) By Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.en)], 1 September 2018 via Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_the_Territorial_Waters_in_the_Caribbean.png.
b) By Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.en)], 4 October 2018 via Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_the_Territorial_Waters_of_the_Pacific_Ocean.png.

Figure 22-28.
a) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 25 July 2019 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2jfetxJ.
b) By Steve Hellebrand, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [CC0 (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/)], 28 January 2009 via USFWS National Digital Library. https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/9654/rec/44.

Figure 22-29.
a) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)] 30 December 2021 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2mVJD6F.
b) By Amanda Meyer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)], 7 January 2012 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/bafyUZ.

Figure 22-30.
a) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/)], 26 June 2007 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/bzTPNb.
b) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 11 January 2016 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2dxcGMP.

Figure 22-31.
a) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)] 24 July 2019 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2jfbAFV.
b) By Tim Donovan, Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/)], 7 October 2011 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/bJRzFn.

Figure 22-32.
a) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)] 12 January 2022 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2mWQnRN.
b) By Florida Fish and Wildlife [CC BY-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/)], 24 May 2017 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/26eokn3.

Figure 22-33.
a) By Ren Glover [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 8 November 2019 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2hVZjpo.
b) By Liv Williamson University of Miami [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 16 November 2020 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2kgV4Gv.

Figure 22-34.
a) By Ryan Dickenson U.S. Coast Guard [CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)], 18 July 2018via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/29B12Bw.
b) By Slim1234567 [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], 17 May 2018 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Screen-Shot-2017-11-21-at-5.05.46-PM-1024×887.png.

Figure 22-35.
a) By Wilfred Hdez [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)], 28 July 2013 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/hLopNk.
b) By ImTurismo [CC0 (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/)], 8 August 2011 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Musa_02.jpg.

Figure 22-36.
a) By [CC BY-NC 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)], 30 June 2017 via Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/W6fHzz.
b) By Paul Asman and Jill Lenoble [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], 24 March 2013 via Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plausibly_staghorn_coral_Acropora_formosa_(7504783684).jpg.

CITATIONS

Ascension Island Government (2021). The Ascension Island Marine Protected Area Management Plan 2021-26. Ascension Island Government Conservation and Fisheries Directorate. https://www.ascension.gov.ac/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/MPA-Management-Plan-2021-26-Final-compressed-1.pdf.

Birkeland, C. (1982). Terrestrial runoff as a cause of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Marine Biology, 69(2), 175-185.

Fabricius, K.E., K. Okaji, and G. De’ath. (2010). Three lines of evidence to link outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci to the release of larval food limitation. Coral Reefs 29(3): 593-605.

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM). (2008). Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument Management Plan. Vol. 1. Honolulu, Hawai’i. https://nmspapahanaumokuakea.blob.core.windows.net/papahanaumokuakea-prod/media/archive/management/mp/vol1_mmp08.pdf.

United Kingdom Government (2021). The Pitcairn Islands Marine Protected Area (MPA) Management Plan 2021-2026. Government of Pitcairn Islands. http://www.pitcairn.pn/3783%20Pitcairn%20MPAMP_WEB.pdf.

U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (2012). Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Final Management Plan. Silver Spring, MD. https://nmsflowergarden.blob.core.windows.net/flowergarden-prod/media/archive/doc/management/fmp2012/fmp2012.pdf.

Previous section

Page 8 of 8