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If you are familiar with corals, you may be shocked by these bright colors. These corals are stressed by warm water and increased UV exposure. They have expelled their symbiotic algae, responsible for their normal green and brown colors, and soon these coral will be white, indicating they are close to death. The bright colors come from fluorescent pigments, used as sunscreen now that the algae are no longer shading the coral. See photos and videos of a bleaching event here.
Credit: Derek Manzello
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